|Regions with significant populations|
Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Church
|Related ethnic groups|
Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Croats, other Southern Slavs
In the history of the southern Slavic people, the Serbs played an important, especially in the formation of Yugoslavia which existed as a united monarchy of southern Slavic-speaking peoples, and later a communist republic free of Soviet rule and under very limited Soviet influence.
Early History and AncestryEdit
What is now Serbia, and the Balkans region have been part of various empires. The southern part of Serbia was colonized by the Greeks, Alexander the Great conquered northern Serbia. In 75 BC, the Romans colonized Serbia. The Serbs have origins from a number of places, ancient ancestrial places include Russia and Belarus. The Slavs from those area settled the Balkans in what is known as the Great Migration. This is a period in Eurasia's history where various Indo-European and Asian tribes began migrating and conquering territories.
The Romans conquered parts of Serbia in the 2nd century BC, in 167 BC when conquering the West, establishing the province of Illyricum and the rest of Central Serbia in 75 BC, establishing the province of Moesia. Srem was conquered by 9 BC and Bačka and Banat in 106 AD after the Trajan's Dacian Wars.
Contemporary Serbia comprises the classical regions of Moesia, Pannonia, parts of Dalmatia, Dacia and Macedonia. The northern Serbian city of Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) was among the top 4 cities of the late Roman Empire, serving as its capital during the Tetrarchy. The chief towns of Upper Moesia were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium (sometimes called municipium Aelium; modern Kostolac), Remesiana (Bela Palanka)
Medieval States in the BalkansEdit
Principality of Serbia 768-969EditPrincipality of Serbia or Serbian Principality ( : Cрпска Кнежевина Srpska Kneževina) was an early medieval state of the Serbs ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty, that existed from ca 768 to 969 in Southeastern Europe. It was established through an unification of several South Slavic tribes under the supreme rule of Višeslav, the first known Serbian ruler by name (768–814). In 822, the Serbs were said to rule the "greater part of Dalmatia", and at the same time the Bulgars had taken the lands to the east, preparing to conquer Serbia. Vlastimir defeated the Bulgar army in a three-year-war (839–842), and the two powers lived in peace for some decades. Vlastimir's three sons succeeded in ruling Serbia together, although not for long; Serbia became a key part in the power struggle between the Byzantines and Bulgars (in predominantly Byzantine alliance), which also resulted in major dynastic civil wars for a period of three decades. Serbia was annexed by the Bulgars for three years (924–927), until the return of the political hostage Časlav, who united several provinces, becoming the most powerful of the Vlastimirović. An important event was the establishment of Christianity as state-religion in 869 AD, and the founding of the first Serbian eparchy, the Eparchy of Ras. The information of the Vlastimirović dynasty ends with De Administrando Imperio 950–960). Serbia was annexed by the Byzantines in 969 and ruled as the Catepanate of Ras.
State of Rascia 1090-1217Edit
The Serbian Grand Principality, also known as Rascia, was founded in 1090, and ended with the elevation to Kingdom in 1217. During the reign of Constantine Bodin, the King of Duklja, Vukan was appointed to rule Rascia as a vassal, and when Bodin was captured by the Byzantines, Vukan became independent and took the title of Grand Prince. When Bodin had died, Rascia became the strongest entity, in which the Serbian realm would be seated, in hands of the Vukanović dynasty. Uroš I, the son of Vukan, ruled Serbia when the Byzantines invaded Duklja, and Rascia would be next in line, but with diplomatic ties with the Kingdom of Hungary, Serbia retained its independence. Uroš II initially fought the Byzantines, but after a defeat soon gives oaths of servitude to the Emperor. Desa, the brother of Uroš II and an initial Byzantine ally, turned to Hungarian support, but was deposed in 1163, when Stefan Tihomir of a cadet line (which would become Nemanjić dynasty), was put on the throne by the Emperor.
State of RaskaEditFrom late 12th century onwards, a new state called Raska, centred in present-day southern Serbia, rose to become the paramount Serb state. Over the 13th and 14th centuries, it ruled over the other Serb lands (the Hum, Travunia and Duklja/Zeta. During this time, Serbia began to expand eastward and, southward into Kosovo and northern Macedonia for the first time. This shift away from the Adriatic coast brought Serbia increasingly under the influence of the Eastern Orthodox, although a substantial proportion of Catholics were found in the coastal regions. Although Europe had already experience the East-West Schism by this time, such a split was far less concrete than it is today, and Catholic Slavs in Bosnia and the Dalmatian coast practiced Christianity in a similar way to Orthodox Slavs – priests married, wore beards and gave liturgy in Slavic rather than Latin. By the beginning of the 14th century Serbs lived in three distinctly independent kingdoms- Dioclea, Rascia and Syrmia.
Led by the Nemanjić dynasty, medieval Serbia reached its military, economic and legal climax. The Kingdom of Serbia was proclaimed in 1217. Direct result of this was the establishment of the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1219. In the same year Saint Sava published the first constitution in Serbia – Zakonopravilo (St. Sava's Nomocanon).Stefan Dušan proclaimed the Serbian Empire in 1346. During Dušan's rule, Serbia reached its territorial, political and economical peak, proclaiming itself as the successor of the Byzantine Empire, and became the most powerful Balkan state of that time. The loss of these areas harmed the Byzantine economy. Tsar Dušan enacted the known Dušan's Code, an extensive constitution, and opened new trade routes and strengthened the state's economy. Serbia flourished, becoming one of the most developed countries and cultures in Europe. Medieval Serbia had a high political, economic, and cultural reputation in Europe. The Serbian identity has been profoundly shaped by the rule of this dynasty and its accomplishments, with the Serbian Orthodox Church who assumed the role of the national spiritual guardian.
Before his sudden death, Stefan Dušan tried to organize a Crusade with the Pope against the threatening Turks. He died in December 1355 at the age 47. He was succeeded by his son Uroš, called the Weak, a term that might also apply to the state of the empire which slowly slided into a feudal anarchy. This was a period marked by the rise of a new threat: the Ottoman Turk sultanate which spread from Asia to Europe. They conquered Byzantium and then the other states in the Balkans.
Ottoman Rule Edit
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Serbian Despotate was subdued by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. The Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, making vassals of the southern governors, soon thereafter, the Emperor died. As Uroš was childless and the nobility could not agree on the rightful heir, the Empire was ruled by semi-independent provincial lords, who often were in feuds with each other. The most powerful of these, Tsar Lazar, a Duke of present-day central Serbia (which had not yet come under Ottoman rule), stood against the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. The result was indecisive, but it resulted in the subsequent fall of Serbia. Stefan Lazarević, the son of Lazar, succeeded as ruler, but had by 1394 become an Ottoman vassal. In 1402 he renounced Ottoman rule and became an Hungarian ally, the years following are characterized by the Ottomans and Hungary battling over the territory of Serbia. In 1453, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, and in 1458 Athens was taken. In 1459, Serbia was annexed, Greece as well, a year later.
Second Serbian Uprising Against Ottoman Rule 1815-1817Edit
The Second Serbian Uprising (1815–1817) was a second phase of the national revolution of the Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the brutal annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire and the failed Hadži Prodan's revolt. The revolutionary council proclaimed an uprising in Takovo on April 23, 1815, with Milos Obrenović chosen as the leader (while Karađorđe was still in exile in Austria). The decision of the Serb leaders was based on two reasons. First, they feared a general massacre of knezes. Second, they learned that Karađorđe was planning to return from exile in Russia. The anti-Karađorđe faction, including Miloš Obrenović, was anxious to forestall Karađorđe and keep him out of power.
Fighting resumed at Easter in 1815, and Milos became supreme leader of the new revolt. When the Ottomans discovered this they sentenced all of its leaders to death. The Serbs fought in battles at Ljubic, Čačak, Palez, Požarevac and Dublje and managed to reconquer the Pashaluk of Belgrade. Milos advocated a policy of restraint: captured Ottoman soldiers were not killed and civilians were released. His announced goal was not independence but an end to abusive misrule.
Wider European events now helped the Serbian cause. Political and diplomatic means in negotiations between the Prince of Serbia and the Ottoman Porte, instead of further war clashes coincided with the political rules within the framework of Metternich's Europe. Prince Miloš Obrenović, an astute politician and able diplomat, in order to confirm his hard won loyalty to the Porte in 1817 ordered the assassination of Karađorđe Petrović. The final defeat of Napoleon in 1815 raised Turkish fears that Russia might again intervene in the Balkans. To avoid this the sultan agreed to make Serbia suzerain- semi independent state nominally responsible to the Porte.
Liberation from Ottoman Rule by Russia, 1877-1878Edit
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878, the Russians supported a number of Balkans uprisings against Ottoman rule, including that of the Bulgarians and the Serbs. This was known as the Balkans theater of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. The Serbian army, poorly-equipped and accompanied by Russian leaders, thwarted several Ottoman offensives into Serbia. The Russians sent monetary aid to the Serbian army, allowing them to take more control of their army, with less Russian officers. The Romanians also aided the Russians in this battle. The offensives were successful, and the Ottomans were crushed by the coalitions of Serbs and Russians.
Kingdom of Serbia 1882-1918Edit
The Kingdom of Serbia (: Краљевина Србија Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned king in 1882. The Principality of Serbia was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty from 1817 onwards (at times replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty). The Principality, suzerain to the Porte, had expelled all Ottoman troops by 1867, de facto securing its independence. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia.
In 1918, Serbia joined with the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Yugoslavia) under the rule of the Karađorđević dynasty.
World War I 1914-1918Edit
On June 28, 1948 the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated in the city of Sarajevo (today the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina). They were assassinated by a militant leader Gavrilo Princip (Russians out of the war leaving the Central Powers in the advantage. Despite this, the Allied powers still defeated the Central armies.: Гаврило Принцип). Princip led a militant group known as the Black Hand ( : Црна рука), officially known as the Unification of Death ( : Уједињење или смрт). This militant group wanted to unify all of the Southern Slavs against the Austrian rule. This led the Austrian-Hungarians to declare war on Serbia. Russia, having been a fervant ally of Serbia declared war on Austria-Hungary which led Germany, an ally of Austria Hungary to declare war on Russia. Russia was not successful in halting the Central Powers, and were amid a communist revolution. In 1917, communist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin pulled the
World War II Edit
During the Second World War, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and the Axis powers who carved out the borders among themselves. As usual with Slavic nations, the Serbs and Yugoslavs established militant groups across the nation to fight the invasion. There were two types of groups, One, known as Partisans, twere led by communist leader Josip Broz Tito who adopted pro-Soviet ideals. The other group were known as Chetniks (Bulgarian forces (a former Axis ally and puppet state) began the Belgrade Offensive ( : Београдска офензива/офанзива) ( : Белградская стратегическая наступательная операция), which liberated the city of Belgrade from German forces. Most of the Soviet forces were who fought in Belgrade were Ukrainians, rather than Russians, the 3rd Ukrainian Front. The Soviet forces did not stay, as they continued their push to Berlin.: Четници), led by Draža Mihailović ( : Драгољуб Михаиловић), a royalist leader. In 1944, a coalition of foces that included Tit's Partisans, the Soviet Red Army and
Cold War Edit
During the Cold War, Yugoslavia reverted to Communism in favor of imperialism. Josip Broz Tito emerged as the influential leader of Yugoslavia and were one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement, which meant being free of either the Western or Soviet sphere of influence.
Tito-Stalin Split and SFR YugoslaviaEdit
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (: Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија), also known as SFR Yugoslavia, was formed amid World War II, when Broz Tito adopted Soviet influence and introduced communism into Yugoslavia. Like the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia also consisted of seperate ethnic republics that would be: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. Serbo-Croatian was the lingua franca of SFR Yugoslavia.
In 1948 however, political tensions began to arouse between Yugoslav and Soviet leaders. Josip Broz Tito refused to become part of the Eastern Bloc or make Yugoslavia a Soviet state. Additionally, the Yugoslavs adopted a different form of communist doctrine known as "Titoism" and veered away from Marxism and Leninism of the Soviet Union. This caused the event known as the Tito-Stalin Split, in which Yugoslavia remained independant of Soviet rule and control, and Soviet influence in Yugoslavia was very limited. The split had initially ended close ties between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. In 1960, a similar event occured with the People's Republic of China, which too was a communist giant of the East that declared independance from Soviet control.
Tito led a very influential leadership in Yugoslavia. Eventually, Yugoslavia develped into a regional power with a stable economy and a strong army, or the Yugoslav People's Army, the armed wing of Yugoslavia which originated from the Partisans of World War II. Although some Soviet influence did remain in Yugoslavia, such as the equipment used by the Yugoslav Armed Forces, which themselves were modified Yugoslav versions of Soviet weapons and machinery. The Zastava rifles for example, were Yugoslav versions of the Soviet AK-47 rifles and became the standard issue used in the Yugoslav People's Army and the M-84 which became the Yugoslav variant of the Soviet T-72 tank.
Balkans War and Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990sEdit
In the 1990s, communism fell in Eastern and Southern Europe and communist nations either reverted to different political or economic doctrines or split into independent nations. That was the case with Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Unlike the dissolution of the Soviet Union, that of Yugoslavia's was not peaceful and was not simply a mere result of protests. Ethnic nationalism among South Slavs - including that of Serbs, Macedonians, Bosniaks and Croats tore the nation the apart. Eventually the republics that once constituted Yugoslavia declared independence. More ethnic strife ensued in these countries, mostly among ethnic Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks in what historians called the Yugoslav Wars. The three countries that suffered the most were Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia and experienced armed civil wars, and ethnic cleansing. Slobodan Milošević, Serbia's president was charged as being the perpetrator to these. However, he was also an influential leader in Serbia. NATO forces eventually took action to bring stability back into the region. In 1999, the Serbs also engaged in a mission to fight Albanian nationalists in Kosovo. Slobodan Milošević's regime was known to have been supported by Russians, who supported them and still continue to support them in the Kosovo Conflict.
The Republic of Serbia TodayEdit
The new FRY President Vojislav Koštunica was soon joined at the top of the domestic Serbian political scene by the Democratic Party's (DS) Zoran Đinđić, who was elected Prime Minister of Serbia at the head of the DOS ticket in December's republican elections. After an initial honeymoon period in the wake of 5 October, DSS and the rest of DOS, led by Đinđić and his DS, found themselves increasingly at odds over the nature and pace of the governments' reform programs. Although initial reform efforts were highly successful, especially in the economic and fiscal sectors, by the middle of 2002, the nationalist Koštunica and the pragmatic Đinđić were openly at odds. Koštunica's party, having informally withdrawn from all DOS decision-making bodies, was agitating for early elections to the Serbian Parliament in an effort to force Đinđić from the scene. After the initial euphoria of replacing Milošević's autocratic regime, the Serbian population, in reaction to this political maneuvering, was sliding into apathy and disillusionment with its leading politicians by mid-2002. This political stalemate continued for much of 2002, and reform initiatives stalled.
Serbs speak Serbian, which is a Southern Slavic language. The Serbian language is Serbia's national register of the Serbo-Croatian language. Serbian and Serbo-Croatian belong to the South Slavic subfamily of the Slavic languages. As of 2006, there are 9,000,000 native speakers of the Serbian language. The sister languages of Serbia are Bosnian, Croatian and Montenegrin. Those too, are seperate registers of the same language, Serbo-Croatian. Historically, the Serbian language was influenced by the Russian language. The Serbian language is written using the Cryllic alphabet. The Cryllic alphabet is an script that started out as a dialect script of Greek. St. Cryil and Methodius perfected the script into a seperate writing system. Cryillic then became the official scripts of many Slavic empires ruled by the Orthodox Church, such as the Serbian Empire, Yugoslavia, Russian Empire and Bulgarian Empire. Like all writing systems, the Cryllic used in Serbia has differences with Russian Cryllic and Bulgarian Cryllic. Some of the characters from the Russian and Bulgarian Cryllic do not exist in Serbian Cryllic. Also, the the Latin character "J" is borrowed into Serbian Cryllic. The Latin "J" is not found in any of the other version of Cryllic.
Serbian is spoken as a minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly by the Republika Srpska (: Република Српскa), an autonomous polity of ethnic Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Most Serbs are overwhelmingly Eastern Orthodox. But Serbs have their own national branch known as the Serbian Orthodox Church.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (: Српска православна црква) is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches. It is the second oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world (after the Bulgarian Orthodox Church).
The Serbian Orthodox Church is the traditional church in Serbia and Republika Srpska (entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina), with 84% and around 88% of the population being adherents, respectively. Additionally, majority of population in Montenegro are at least nominal adherents of the church. The Serbian Orthodox Church is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia, but also all over the world since many Serbs have emigrated to foreign countries.
The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Orthodox communion. The Patriarch of Serbia serves as first among equals in his church; the current patriarch is Irinej. The Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archeparchy of Žiča. Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 14th century, and was known afterwards as the Patriarchate of Peć. This patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in the 18th century. The modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade and the Metropolitanate of Montenegro.
The Serbian Orthodox Church is the custodian of many significant Christian relics, such as the right hand of John the Baptist, Saint George's hand and skull parts, Holy Cross segments, St. Paraskevi's finger and body of St. Basil of Ostrog, among others.
CuisineEditSerbian cuisine is a Balkan type cuisine. It bears similarity and influence to Turkish and Mediterranean cuisines. Typical breakfasts are usually small, which include coffee and pastries as staple ingredients of breakfast. Burek is a pastry, of Turkish origin made of flaky dough and commonly filled with cheeses such as sirene. Popara is a type of meal made of leftovers from breads and pastries. Popara is also eaten in other Balkan and Turkic countries. Main courses include foods like goulash, roasted pork and noodles with poppy. Serbian food is also commonly grilled. Roštilj refers to Serbian style barbeque. Pljeskavica is a dish made of grilled ground meat, sometimes eaten as a hamburger. Pljeskavica is a national Serbian dish. Another national dish in Serbia is ćevapčići. Ćevapčići is the Balkan version of kebabs, but this type is also made with ground meat. Rakia is a famous Balkan alcoholic drink, equivalent to Russian vodka. Rakia is also a popular Serbian alcoholic beverage. Šljivovica is the national version of rakia in Serbia.
Notable Serbs or People of Serbian OriginEdit
The ruler of Duklja, the most powerful Serbian principality of the time, from around 1000 to 1016. He ruled during the protracted war between the Byzantine Empire and the First Bulgarian Empire. Vladimir was acknowledged as a pious, just, and peaceful ruler. He is recognized as a martyr and saint, with his feast day being celebrated on 22 May.
The Grand Prince of the Serbian Principality (Rascia) from 1166 to 1196. He was an heir of the Vukanović dynasty and was the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. He issued the "Hilandar Charter" for the newly founded monastery at Mount Athos. He is remembered for his contributions to Serbian culture and history, being the founder of the powerful Serbian state that would evolve into the Serbian Empire, and the national church.
A Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law and literature, and a diplomat. Sava was born Rastko Nemanjić, the youngest son of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja
| Dušan the Mighty|
He King of Serbia (from 8 September 1331) and Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks (from 16 April 1346) until his death on 20 December 1355. Dušan conquered a large part of southeast Europe, becoming one of his era's most powerful monarchs. He enacted the constitution of the Serbian Empire in Dušan's Code, perhaps the most important work of medieval Serbia.
A medieval Serbian ruler, who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire. Lazar's state, known in historiography as Moravian Serbia, comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, and South Morava Rivers. Lazar ruled it from 1373 until his death in 1389. Lazar's political programme was the reunification of the disintegrated Serbian state under him as the direct successor of the Nemanjić dynasty.
An Ottoman statesman hailing from Bosnia. Born into a Serbian family as Bajo Nenadic, he was recruited at an early age as part of the devşirme system of Ottoman collection of young Serbian boys to be raised to serve as a janissary.
An 18th-century Serb polymath who lived and worked in the Austrian Monarchy and Venice. Described as a Renaissance man, he was an educator, administrator, poet, engraver, lexicographer, herbalist, historian, translator, editor, publisher, polemicist, polyglot, a prominent oenologist, and traveler.
Revolutionary who founded modern Serbia as the elected leader of the First Serbian Uprising (part of the Serbian Revolution) that aimed at liberating Serbia from the Ottoman Empire (1804–1813); he personally led armies against the Ottomans in several battles, which resulted in a short-lived state which he would administer as Grand Leader (Veliki Vožd) from 14 February 1804 to 21 September 1813, alongside the newly founded People's Assembly and the Governing Council, simulating a wholly functional state government in war-time.
A Serbian diplomat of the Russian Empire, count and merchant-adventurer in the employ of tsar Peter the Great, who conducted important diplomatic negotiations in Constantinople, Rome and Beijing. His most lasting achievement was the Treaty of Kiakhta, which regulated relations between the Russian Empire and the Qing Empire until the mid-19th century. Also, he was an author of a whole number of pamphlets, monographs, treaties and letters concerned with liberating the lands of the Slavs, then occupied by the Ottoman Empire and the forces of Leopold I.
Prince of Serbia from 1815 to 1839, and again from 1858 to 1860. He participated in the First Serbian Uprising, led Serbs in the Second Serbian Uprising, and founded the House of Obrenović. Under his rule, Serbia became an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire. Prince Miloš ruled autocratically, permanently refusing to share power. During his rule, he was the richest man in Serbia and one of the richest in the Balkans.
A Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language. He is called, perhaps, for his collections of songs, fairy tales, and riddles, the father of the study of Serbian folklore. He was also the author of the first Serbian dictionary in his new reformed language.
|Petar II Petrović-Njegoš|
Петар II Петровић Његош
A Prince-Bishop of Montenegro, a Serbian Orthodox Metropolitan of Cetinje, a philosopher and poet, whose work is considered responsible for the modernization of Montenegro.
The last King of Serbia, and a member of the European House of Karađorđević. Prince Peter was born in Belgrade to Prince Alexander of Serbia and his consort, Princess Persida Nenadović. Prince Alexander abdicated in 1858, and the 14 year old Prince Peter went into exile with the rest of his family, initially staying in Wallachia, present-day Romania.
A Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade (1890–91 and 1897) several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26.)
A Serbian vojvoda and arguably the most successful Serbian commander who participated in all of Serbia's wars from 1876 to 1918. He directly commanded the First Serbian army in the Battle of Kolubara and in breach of the Thessaloniki Front was the Chief of the Supreme Command.
Serbian composer and music educator. Born in Negotin in 1856, Mokranjac studied music in Belgrade, Munich, Rome and Leipzig while in his twenties. Later, he became the conductor of the Belgrade Choir Society and founder of the Serbian School of Music and the first Serbian string quartet, in which he played the cello. He left Belgrade at the beginning of World War I and moved to Skopje, where he died on 28 September 1914.
A Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who was best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in New York City. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices.
A Serbian Realist painter. He is considered one of Serbia's greatest academic painters. His most famous and recognizable paintings are the Serbian Migrations, the Crowning of Stefan Dušan, the Takovo Uprising, Cockfighting, Decorating of the Bride, and the Fencing Lesson. He also painted many famous portraits. While many of his works can be seen in many European museums across the continent some have been lost
A Serbian painter from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Considered Serbia's most famous impressionist and fauvist, she was the most important Serbian female painter of the period.
A Serbian American artist based in New York, a performance artist who began her career in the early 1970s. Her work explores the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, and the possibilities of the mind. Active for over three decades, she has recently begun to describe herself as the "grandmother of performance art."
A Serbian singer and composer. She is a major pop star in Serbia. She became famous during the 1990s when she and her sister Aleksandra Kovač were a big attraction in Serbia and surrounding countries - R&B band K2. She got back in the spotlight in 2007, thanks to her hit-single "Kolena" which spent more than 15 weeks at No. 1 on Serbian pop-rock charts and also entered MTV Adria Top 20. She is one of the judges on the first series of X Factor Adria.
A Serbian sport shooter. She has won a total of five Olympic medals: one gold, three silvers and one bronze. She has also won three World Championship gold medals in the 10 m air pistol. In 1992, she lost the Olympic gold medal to Russian Marina Logvinenko despite having the same score. She is one of only six shooters (by 2012) to compete in at least seven Olympic Games.
Serbian tennis player ranked No. 1 in the world in 2008. As of January 27, 2014, she is no. 12 in the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) rankings for singles. As of 2013, Ivanovic has career earnings of over 11 million US$. In June 2011, she was named one of the "30 Legends of Women's Tennis: Past, Present and Future" by Time.
|An American actress, musician, actress and fashion designer; born in the Ukrainian SSR to a Serbian father and a Russian mother, she is best known in acting for her roles in action movies and science fiction films, and also starred in the video game series Resident Evil and owns Creature Entertainment, her own production company, however shes does not speak proficient Serbian as she speaks extensive Russian and English|
A Serbian philanthropist, and former professional basketball player and current sports administrator. He spent most of his career in the NBA. He was among the first group of European basketball players to transfer to the NBA in the late 1980s and was named one of the 50 Greatest Euroleague Contributors. He is one of six players in NBA history to record 13,000 points, 9,000 rebounds, 3,000 assists and 1,500 blocked shots, along with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Tim Duncan, Shaquille O'Neal, Kevin Garnett and Hakeem Olajuwo. He was also placed in FIBA Hall of Fame.
An American basketball coach who is currently the head coach of the National Basketball Association's San Antonio Spurs. Taking over as coach of the Spurs in 1996, he is the longest tenured coach in both the NBA and all Big Four sports leagues. He is often referred to as "Coach Pop" or simply "Pop". He has won five NBA championships as the head coach of the Spurs. He also has the most consecutive winning seasons (playoffs included) of any NBA coach, at 16. He was born in the United States to a Serbian father and a Croatian mother.
- ↑ Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2013. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. online version.
- ↑ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bk.html
- ↑ "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011". July 12, 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- ↑ http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/nepsz2011/nepsz_orsz_2011.pdf
- ↑ http://www.zentralrat-der-serben.de/index.php?Serben_in_Deutschland
- ↑ "Erstmals über eine Million EU- und EFTA Angehörige in der Schweiz". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 14 October 2008.
- ↑ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_1YR_B04003&prodType=table
- ↑ "Etrangers inscrits dans tous les registres (1,2,3,4 et 5) du registre national - Remarque : Une nationalité "d'origine" désigne un réfugié politique reconnu". Statistiques Population étrangère. date=2 January 2008.
- ↑ Macedonia (region)
- ↑ Hrčak – Scrinia Slavonica, Vol.2 No.1 Listopad 2002
- ↑ VisitSerbia.org – Culture tourism in Serbia, "Serbia, the land where 17 Roman Emperors were born..."
- ↑ Scurlock, Gareth (28 July 2008). "Serbia shines for the EXIT festival". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/travel/holiday_type/music_and_travel/article4385812.ece. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- ↑ Laiou; Morrison. The Byzantine Economy. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780521615020.